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      1 - Predicting Suicidal Thoughts Based on Parental Psychological Control: The Mediating role of Mindfulness
      zahra eghdami Mahboubeh Fouladchang
      Issue 101 , Volume 26 , Spring 2022
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating role of mindfulness in the relationship between parental psychological control and suicidal ideation. Participants included 375 undergraduate students (204 girls and 171 boys) from Shiraz University who were sel Full Text
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating role of mindfulness in the relationship between parental psychological control and suicidal ideation. Participants included 375 undergraduate students (204 girls and 171 boys) from Shiraz University who were selected using multistage random cluster sampling. They completed the dependency-oriented and achievement-oriented psychological control scale, five facet mindfulness questionnaire, and beck scale for suicide ideation. Reliability of research instruments was determined by Cronbach's alpha and validity by confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency. The results of structural equation modeling showed that the proposed model fits well with the data of this study and that parental psychological control negatively predicts the dimensions of mindfulness. The findings also showed that parental psychological control has an indirect effect (through mindfulness) on suicidal thoughts. It is concluded that the parents' induction of shame and guilt in order to achievement or dependency of children can prevent mindfulness and then determine suicidal thoughts. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric symptoms in Iranian women and its relationship with difficulty in emotional regulation and change in the symptoms during corona virus
      Seyedeh Zahra Mousavi Razieh Khorramabadi
      Issue 101 , Volume 26 , Spring 2022
      The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in Iranian women, its relationship with difficulty in emotional regulation as well as women's attitudes toward menstruation and the change in the severity of premenstrual dysphori Full Text
      The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in Iranian women, its relationship with difficulty in emotional regulation as well as women's attitudes toward menstruation and the change in the severity of premenstrual dysphoric disorder and difficulty in emotion regulation during Covid 19 pandemic. The research method was descriptive-correlational and the statistical population was Iranian women of menstrual age in 2021, from which 287 people were selected. The research tools were demographic information form, difficulty in emotion regulation scale and premenstrual symptoms screening tool. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder were found to be higher than premenstrual syndrome, and most women considered menstruation to be normal for normal health. Symptoms were also unchanged during the Covid 19 Pandemic in most women. The highest frequency of severe premenstrual symptoms was related to fatigue/ lack of energy and the lowest frequency was related to insomnia. Based on regression analysis, difficulty in emotion regulation explained 16% of the changes in premenstrual symptoms and dimensions of difficulties engaging in goal-directed behaviors and lack of emotional clarity together explained 18% of the changes. Therefore, considering the predictive role of emotion regulation, designing interventions to regulate women's emotion may be able to reduce premenstrual symptoms. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Investigation of psychometric properties and factor structure of Persian version of the smartphone addiction scale
      شادی حاج حسینی Ladan Fata Ali Fathi-Ashtiani
      Issue 101 , Volume 26 , Spring 2022
      This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) in a sample of 208 Iranians. The convenience sampling method was employed to select individuals with smartphones living in Tehran. The participants completed the SAS and Yo Full Text
      This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) in a sample of 208 Iranians. The convenience sampling method was employed to select individuals with smartphones living in Tehran. The participants completed the SAS and Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Construct validity and convergence validity were employed to analyze the scale validity, whereas the retest method and Cronbach’s alpha were adopted to evaluate its reliability. According to the confirmatory factor analysis results of evaluating the construct validity and the SAS structure, the research data are consistent with the model. In other words, the fitting indices were within an appropriate range, and the SAS had a factor structure with six subscales. Therefore, the construct validity of the SAS was confirmed. Moreover, its convergence validity was confirmed with Young’s IAT (r= 0.75). The retest correlation coefficient (r= 0.93) and Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency (α= 0.92) confirmed the reliability of the scale. Therefore, the 33-item SAS had acceptable psychometric properties in six scales. It can be used as a valid and reliable tool to analyze an Iranian population. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - The Effectiveness of Pennsylvania Resilience Program Training on Academic Lifestyle Academic health preventing behaviors
      reza darabi mehdi arabzadeh hassan heidari hossein davoodi
      Issue 101 , Volume 26 , Spring 2022
      The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Pennsylvania resilience program training on academic lifestyle: academic health preventing behaviors. In this experimental quasi study with a pre-test-post-test and follow design, 50 undergraduate students of K Full Text
      The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Pennsylvania resilience program training on academic lifestyle: academic health preventing behaviors. In this experimental quasi study with a pre-test-post-test and follow design, 50 undergraduate students of Kharazmi university in two experimental and control groups before and after training, answered to the questionnaire of academic health behaviors including components of learned helplessness, avoidance of help seeking, aggression passively responded, academic procrastination, self-disability, effort avoidance, academic deception, maladaptive perfectionism. In 12 two-hour sessions, the experimental group received resilience training in a group manner. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance showed that resilience training program was effective in reducing the components of learned helplessness, avoiding help seeking, passive aggression, academic procrastination and academic deception. But avoidance of effort and perfectionism had no significant effects on the components of self-disability. Overall, the results of the present study show that the Pennsylvania resilience program was effective in reducing academic deterrent behaviors to help ensure the psychological immunity of learners in the face of the demands of academic life. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Investigating and comparing the development of cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence and spiritual ‎intelligence from adolescence to adulthood
      Marzieh Sadat Sajadinezhad Soghra Akbari Chermahini
      Issue 101 , Volume 26 , Spring 2022
      This study aimed to investigate the evolution of cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence, and spiritual intelligence and compare the development of the three types of intelligence from adolescence to old age. This research is cross-sectional developmental researc Full Text
      This study aimed to investigate the evolution of cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence, and spiritual intelligence and compare the development of the three types of intelligence from adolescence to old age. This research is cross-sectional developmental research design and descriptive method of a causal-comparative study. Participants in this study were 691 individuals living in Arak with an age range of 14-80 years were selected by random cluster sampling method, and answered Sohrabi and Naseri spiritual intelligence questionnaires, Bradbury-Graves Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, and the adult version of the Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test. The results of data analysis by two-way analysis of variance showed a significant difference between different age groups in terms of spiritual intelligence, but this difference was not significant in cognitive and emotional intelligence. Also, the interaction effect of type of intelligence and age group was significant. It can be concluded that the developmental process of cognitive, spiritual, and emotional intelligence over time from adolescence to old age is not the same, and perhaps in the final stages of life with the loss and decline of one of these intelligences can be seen another increase to compensate for the deficiency to solve life problems. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - model of structural relations between dimensions of personal and social identity elements and their effects on students of Tehran universities' national identity
      mohammad solgi
      Issue 101 , Volume 26 , Spring 2022
      The purpose of the present study was to investigate structural relations between dimensions of personal and social identity elements and their effects on students of Tehran universities' national identity. The research method was descriptive and correlational. two perso Full Text
      The purpose of the present study was to investigate structural relations between dimensions of personal and social identity elements and their effects on students of Tehran universities' national identity. The research method was descriptive and correlational. two personal identity questionnaires (Adams), known as "Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status" and a national and social identity questionnaire (prepared by the researcher) were used as research instruments. About 600 university students of Tehran City (17 universities as the statistical population of the research) were examined by these tests and finally, 524 true questionnaires (without error) were registered and analyzed in a data processing system, and then path analysis was used to analyze the data. The results showed that the model had the necessary fit and direct and indirect effects of dimensions of personal and social identity elements were significant on national identity (p<0.01) and considering national identity regardless of the elements of social and personal identity is a reductionist understanding. Accordingly, social policymakers are advised to consider the role of youth personal and social identity bases in trying to strengthen the national identity of students and to take practical intervention to strengthen these components. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Normalization of the Cognitive Questionnaire about Body and Health (cabah)
      maryam khadirzare فریده نرگسی farzad zandi alireza mokhberi
      Issue 101 , Volume 26 , Spring 2022
      Dysfunctional beliefs about illness and physical symptoms have been identified as risk factors for health anxiety. The Body and Health Cognitions Questionnaire (CABAH) is one of the most comprehensive tools for measuring health cognition. The aim of this study was to st Full Text
      Dysfunctional beliefs about illness and physical symptoms have been identified as risk factors for health anxiety. The Body and Health Cognitions Questionnaire (CABAH) is one of the most comprehensive tools for measuring health cognition. The aim of this study was to standardize Questionnaire 30 of this questionnaire in Iran. The number of samples in this study included 869 male and female students with health anxiety in Sanandaj Azad University, Kurdistan University and Khorramabad University of Medical Sciences who were selected by convenience sampling. Were evaluated. The validity of the questionnaire was obtained by Cronbach's alpha method and the construct validity was obtained by confirmatory factor analysis using Lizrel software. The Cronbach's alpha value of the whole questionnaire is 0.80, which indicates the appropriate internal consistency of the questionnaire. Also, the correlation between two parallel forms in the halving test for the CABAH questionnaire was 0.61, which is also acceptable. Therefore, in general, it can be said that the CABAH questionnaire has good reliability and can be used as a valid tool. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - The Role of Pathological Personality Traits, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Emotional Schemas in Predicting Personality Disorders of Cluster “B”
      Mohammad Valipour Behnaz Shid Anbarani Fatemeh Davoodi Hamidreza Aghamohamadian Shaerbaf Alireza Gol
      Issue 101 , Volume 26 , Spring 2022
      Due to the high prevalence of personality disorders and the change of personality disorder classification model in DSM-5, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of pathological (morbid) personality traits, early maladaptive schemas and emotional schemas i Full Text
      Due to the high prevalence of personality disorders and the change of personality disorder classification model in DSM-5, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of pathological (morbid) personality traits, early maladaptive schemas and emotional schemas in predicting B-Cluster personality disorders. This is a descriptive correlational study. The sample is 359 (230 females and 129 males) who were selected in access from the age range of 18-50 years in Mashhad. The research instruments were Personality Disorder Questionnaire (PDQ-4), DSM-5 Personality Questionnaire (PID-5), Early Maladaptive Schemas Questionnaire (YSQ) and Lay Emotional Schema Scale (LESS). Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression analysis were used for data analysis. The findings of this study showed that the variables of comprehensibility, disinhibition, consensus, antagonism, impaired limits and psychoticism are significantly capable of predicting antisocial personality disorder and the variables of comprehensibility, control, disinhibition, negative affectivity, rumination, numbness, simplistic view of emotion, blame and duration have significant predictive power of borderline personality disorder and variables of antagonism, guilt, blame, psychoticism, higher values and consensus significantly predict the narcissist personality disorder and variables of consensus, disinhibition, antagonism, negative affectivity, other-directedness, over-vigilance and detachment significantly predict the histrionic personality disorder. It can be concluded that morbid personality traits, early maladaptive schemas, and emotional schemas play a significant role in predicting personality disorders of cluster “B”. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      9 - The Modeling between Motivational strategies and Metacognitive self- regulation with peer-assisted learning in high school students
      kazem fathtabar mehrdad hamednia Milad Abedi Ghelich gheshlaghi
      Issue 101 , Volume 26 , Spring 2022
      The purpose of present study was identifying the relations between motivational strategies and metacognitive self- regulation with peer-assisted learning among high school students Amol. The statistical population was the 2950 persons of Amol high schools' students in s Full Text
      The purpose of present study was identifying the relations between motivational strategies and metacognitive self- regulation with peer-assisted learning among high school students Amol. The statistical population was the 2950 persons of Amol high schools' students in second ant thirst grade mathematics discourse. Among them selected 333 students as sample according to Cochran formula and multi cluster sampling. The research instrument was the part of Pintrich and et al. questionnaire containing motivational strategies, learning strategies and peer-assisted learning dimension. Data were analyzed with SPSS21and LISREL8.8. revealed that there is relation between the Motivational strategies subscales with peer-assisted learning statistically significance. there is relation between the metacognitive self- regulation subscales with peer-assisted learning statistically significance. A regression analysis revealed that share of value task, internal aim orientation, self- regulation and learning control belif in predicting peer-assisted learning students meaningful. But share of other variables were not significant in predicting peer-assisted learning. The results of path analysis showed that: Learning control belief, internal aim orientation and value task through variable of self- regulation has an indirect effect on peer-assisted learning, but self- regulation has a direct effect on peer-assisted learning students. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Teacher student relationship and help seeking: the mediating role of achievement goals and achievement motivation
      سمانه سادات موسوی شریف Zahra Naghsh sogand ghasemzadeh
      Issue 101 , Volume 26 , Spring 2022
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between help seeking and teacher student relationship with the mediating role of achievement goals and achievement motivation. The statistical population of this study were students of Tehran province who stu Full Text
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between help seeking and teacher student relationship with the mediating role of achievement goals and achievement motivation. The statistical population of this study were students of Tehran province who studied in the seventh and ninth grades in the academic year of 1398-99. The sample of this study were 317 boys and girls students that was chosen by multi-stage cluster sampling and all of them completed the Ryan and Pintrich questionnaire, Murray and Zurich’s teacher student relationship questionnaire, Herman’s achievement motivation questionnaire and Eliot and McGregor achievement goals. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and path analysis. The findings showed that the direct effect of teacher student relationship on achievement motivation and the direct effect of mastery approach on achievement motivation positive and significant. The direct effect of performance avoiding on the help seeking was negative and significant. The in directed effect of teacher student relationship on the help seeking by mediating of mastery approach and performance avoiding was positive and significant, and also the in directed effect of teacher student relationship on the help seeking by mediating of achievement motivation was positive and significant. The results of this study will be useful for education and higher education centers, especially for teachers, to increase the help seeking and teacher student relationship and also motivation among students. Manuscript Document
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    • Open Access Article

      1 - Mediating Effect of Moral Disengagement on the Relationship between Dark Traits of Personality and Infidelity Tendency
      Sajjad Basharpoor Mir Nader Miri
      Issue 87 , Volume 22 , Autumn 2018
      This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dark traits of personality with infidelity tendency and role of moral disengagement as a mediator. Hence, 204 individuals, were selected by means of multistage cluster sampling from district 8 in Tehran and compl Full Text
      This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dark traits of personality with infidelity tendency and role of moral disengagement as a mediator. Hence, 204 individuals, were selected by means of multistage cluster sampling from district 8 in Tehran and completed The Dark Triad Personality Questionnaire (Jonson and Webster, 2010), Moral Disengagement Questionnaire (Bandura, 1995), and Infidelity Tendency Questionnaire (Polat, 2006). Data were analyzed using the correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Findings from analysis showed that each of dark traits of personality had significant correlation with moral disengagement and infidelity tendency variables and also moral disengagement had a significant correlation with infidelity tendency. On the other hand, traits of Narcissism and Machiavellianism in addition to direct effect by moral disengagement have indirect effect over infidelity tendency. Finally, according to findings, it can be expressed that infidelity tendency the relation between traits of Narcissism and Machiavellianism with infidelity tendency plays a mediating role. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - The Effectiveness of Group Counseling "Narrative Therapy" on Family Functioning among Women with Addicted Husbands
      Mohammad Khodayarifard Gholamreza Sohrabpour Elahe Hejazi
      Issue 86 , Volume 22 , Summer 2018
      The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of group counseling "Narrative therapy" on family functioning among women with addicted husbands. Present research was an experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design along with follo Full Text
      The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of group counseling "Narrative therapy" on family functioning among women with addicted husbands. Present research was an experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design along with follow up 1 month and 3 month. Participants were 44 persons of the 10 region of Tehran who had family functioning score lower than the mean of statistical population. They were selected based on the voluntary sampling procedure, and were also randomly assigned to two groups, experimental and control. After the early loss, each group was include 20 persons and is evaluated by Family Assessment Device (FAD) after doing interview in the same condition. The experimental group received 10 sessions of group counseling "Narrative therapy" and the control group did not received any intervention. Both groups were evaluated again at the end of intervention, 1 month and also 3 month after that. Data analyzed with repeated measure analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc test. Family functioning the (problem solving, communication, roles, affective responsiveness, affective involvement, behavior control and general functioning) of women who received the sessions of group counseling "Narrative therapy" was improved significantly rather than they who did not received that. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Structural Relationship between Child Abuse and Emotion Dysregulation with Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder
      Talieh Moosavihondori Majid Mahmoud Alilou Yaser Madani
      Issue 86 , Volume 22 , Summer 2018
      This research aims to investigate the structural relationship between child abuse and emotion dysregulation with symptoms of borderline personality disorder three hundred and seventy seven participants were chosen from Shiraz university students through convenience samp Full Text
      This research aims to investigate the structural relationship between child abuse and emotion dysregulation with symptoms of borderline personality disorder three hundred and seventy seven participants were chosen from Shiraz university students through convenience sampling method. All participants completed Child Abuse Questionnaire, Difficulties in Emotion Dysregulation Scale and Schizotypal Trait Questionnaire (B form). Data were analyzed using SMART-PLS software and multiple regression. Findings suggest that among main types of child abuse, neglect relates to symptoms of borderline personality disorder directly and indirectly through emotion dysregulation as mediator variable. In addition, child emotional and sexual abuse both indirectly relate to symptoms of borderline personality disorder, through emotion dysregulation as mediator variable. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - A Study of Psychometric Properties of Future Time Perspective Scale (FTPS) and its Relation to Academic Achievement
      Mohsen Afshar Elahe Hejazi Javad Ejei Nahid Sadeghi
      Issue 86 , Volume 22 , Summer 2018
      The present study aims at investigating psychometric properties of Future Time Perspective Scale (FTPS) among a sample of senior high school students and to determine its role in predicting their academic achievement. To this end 527 senior high school students in Karaj Full Text
      The present study aims at investigating psychometric properties of Future Time Perspective Scale (FTPS) among a sample of senior high school students and to determine its role in predicting their academic achievement. To this end 527 senior high school students in Karaj (city in Alborz Province) during the school year 2015-2016, were chosen using stratified proportional sampling and completed a questionnaire which consists of Future Time Perspective Scale (FTPS) and futurist present subscale. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that the structure of Future Time Perspective Scale (FTPS) after varimax rotation was clearly indicated the existence of four independent factors that is almost consistent with Husman and Shell (2008) classification of the items but second-order confirmatory factor analysis showed insignificant factorial load of extension component on future time perspective construct. Therefore, we can conclude that future time perspective of Iranian students only consist of three components: connection, value and speed. The results indicated acceptable reliability of FTPS. Regression analysis showed that these three factors significantly predict student's academic achievement. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - The Moderating Role of Interal-External Locus of Control in the Relationship between Early Maladaptive Schemas and Social Anxiety in Adolescents
      Seyed Valliollah Mousavi Sajjad Rezaei Setareh Atefi Karajvandani Hamid Javanparast
      Issue 86 , Volume 22 , Summer 2018
      The present study aims to investigate the mediator role of locus of control in the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and social anxiety in adolescents. The statistical population included all male and female students of studying in state and non-state high Full Text
      The present study aims to investigate the mediator role of locus of control in the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and social anxiety in adolescents. The statistical population included all male and female students of studying in state and non-state high schools in Rasht District 1 in the academic year 2015-16. In a cross-sectional cluster sampling selected 400 students and responded to Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A), Yang Maladaptive Schemas Questionnaire and Rutter Locus of Control Scale. The collected data were analyzed by using Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, Mediation hierarchical regression analysis with Baron and Kenny method. Pearson correlation analyses indicate a significant positive relationship between schemas of Disconnection/Rejection domain, Impaired Autonomy and/or Performance domain, Impaired Limits domain, Other-Directedness domain, Overvigilance/Inhibition domain and social anxiety, with values of 0.60, 0.55, 0.39, 0.54, 0.50 respectively. The results also revealed that this association, locus of control is not capable to modifying of the relationship between social anxiety and early maladaptive schemas (in any of domains). Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Psychologists' Professional Codes of Ethics in Iran, America, Canada, England, and Australia
      Behnaz Dowran Ali Fathi-Ashtiani
      Issue 88 , Volume 22 , Winter 2019
      the present study compares psychologists' professional Codes of Ethics in Iran, America, Canada, England, and Australia. The study population consisted of all countries with professional Codes of Ethics, of which, America, Canada, Britain, Australia, and Iran were purpo Full Text
      the present study compares psychologists' professional Codes of Ethics in Iran, America, Canada, England, and Australia. The study population consisted of all countries with professional Codes of Ethics, of which, America, Canada, Britain, Australia, and Iran were purposively selected due to their progressiveness in the development of professional Codes of Ethics, and their ethical principles and standards were compared. The results obtained showed that with the exception of Iran and America, all codes studied had defined the basic concepts and terminologies after introduction. In addition, they all contained two main sections, namely, general principles and standards. The general principles were almost the same and common in these codes, and included respect for people's dignity, accountability, integrity, no discrimination or injustice, philanthropy, and avoidance of harm. The ethical standards in Iran’s and America's codes appear independently from the general principles. Meanwhile, the standards are presented under relevant ethical principles in the Australian, Canadian, and British codes. Iran's standards of ethical codes almost exactly match those of America's, and the only difference is in the order of presenting standards of "Accountability" and "Storing registered information and fees" and the extent of explanations and details. According to the present study, the following changes can contribute to a greater understanding and practicability of Iran's Code of Ethics: Providing definitions and explanations for specialized terminologies and general principles, adding more details to standards and considering local culture and religion. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Compare the Effectiveness of Group Therapy Based on Acceptance and Commitment and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Reducing Anxiety of Mothers of Autistic Children
      Javad Ejei Maryam Sayadshirazy Masoud Gholamali Lavasani Abdolrahim Kasaei Esfahani
      Issue 85 , Volume 22 , Spring 2018
      This study investigated the effectiveness of group therapy based on acceptance and commitment (ACT) compared with cognitive-behavior therapy on decreasing anxiety and increasing acceptance of mothers of autistic children. This study was quasi-experimental design with pr Full Text
      This study investigated the effectiveness of group therapy based on acceptance and commitment (ACT) compared with cognitive-behavior therapy on decreasing anxiety and increasing acceptance of mothers of autistic children. This study was quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test with control group. The experimental groups were consisted of two groups based on acceptance and commitment group therapy (ACT) and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) respectively. Both groups were received ten sessions treatment. 12 people were employed in the control group who were not treated. In order to evaluate the level of anxiety and acceptance, two questionnaires were used: Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II). Comparing treatment groups showed that between the effectiveness of group therapy based on acceptance and commitment with cognitive behavioral therapy on reducing maternal anxiety and promoting acceptance was not significantly different. However, the impact of group therapy based on acceptance and commitment in pre-test and follow-up was more than cognitive behavior therapy. Therefore, the current research and ACT provide empirical support for mothers with ASD children. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - The Effectiveness of Training of Emotionally-Focused Approach on Couple Burnout and Couples Tendency for Divorce
      Mohammad Mohammadi Javad Ejei Masoud Gholamali Lavasani
      Issue 88 , Volume 22 , Winter 2019
      The present research was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of training of emotionally-focused approach on couple burnout and tendency for divorce in couples. The population included all the couples who visited the Health House because of marital problem and conflic Full Text
      The present research was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of training of emotionally-focused approach on couple burnout and tendency for divorce in couples. The population included all the couples who visited the Health House because of marital problem and conflict and lack of intimacy in their relationships. In the present research, by using available sampling method, 20 couples were selected who had the highest scores in the research questionnaire, and their assigned into two groups experiment and control (10 couples per group). Data gathering tools in the present research were Pains Couple Burnout Measure (1996) and the Divorce Tendency Scale of Roswelt, Jonson &, Moro (DTS) (1986), which were completed by the participations of both groups before and after the intervention. The results of the multivariate covariance analysis suggested that the training of emotionally-focused approach has led to significant decrease in couple burnout and two components of emotional exhaustion and mental fatigue in couples of the experiment group, but it has not been effective on reducing physical fatigue of the couples. Other results indicated that tendency to divorce in couples of the experiment group has had significant reduction compared to the control group. According to the findings of the present research, it can be concluded that training of the emotionally-focused approach has been able to be effective on reducing couple burnout and tendency to divorce in couples. Counselors and family therapists can use the findings of the present research for their clinical and therapeutic interventions. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      9 - The Mediating Role of Positive and Negative Affect in the Relationship between Meaning in Life and Mental Health
      Leila Mohammadi Mohammad Ali Besharat Mohammad Reza Rezazade Masoud Gholamali Lavasani
      Issue 86 , Volume 22 , Summer 2018
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating role of positive and negative affect in the relationship between meaning in life and mental health. The sample consisted of 337 students (153 males and 184 females) from University of Tehran at three levels: BA, Full Text
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating role of positive and negative affect in the relationship between meaning in life and mental health. The sample consisted of 337 students (153 males and 184 females) from University of Tehran at three levels: BA, MA and PHD. Participants are chosen by available sampling. The students answered the Crumbaugh Maholick (1964) Meaning of Life Questionnaire, Veit and Ware (1983) Mental Health Inventory and Watson et al (1988) Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. For analyzing data, we used some indexes such as Frequency, Percent, Standard deviation, Pearson correlation test and for proving the mediating role, we used Pathway analysis. The results showed a significant positive and negative relationship between meaning in life and psychological well-being as well as psychological distress. The Pathway analysis showed that positive and negative affect has mediating role in the relationship between meaning in life and mental health. According to the result, it can be concluded that, attention to meaning in life and improve it in students life lead to increasing positive affect and as a result can influence mental health and decrease expression of negative affect and psychological distress level. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      10 - The Mediating Role of Identity Processing Styles in the Relationship between Attachment Styles and Cognitive Emotion Regulation
      Hamideh Mohammadi Mahboobe Fouladchang
      Issue 87 , Volume 22 , Autumn 2018
      The aim of present study was to investigate the mediating role of identity processing styles in the relationship between attachment styles and cognitive emotion of regulation. Participants included 378(253 females and males 125) selected from Shiraz University students Full Text
      The aim of present study was to investigate the mediating role of identity processing styles in the relationship between attachment styles and cognitive emotion of regulation. Participants included 378(253 females and males 125) selected from Shiraz University students selected by multistage random cluster sampling method. The research instruments were Attachment Styles Scale (Gillath, Hart, Noftle, & Stockdale, 2009), Identity Styles Scale (ISS-6G, White, Wampler & Winn, 1998) and Cognitive Emotion of Regulation Questionnaire (Granefski, Kraaij & Spinhoven). Findings showed that secure attachment had indirect effects on positive and negative cognitive emotion of regulation strategies by mediation of informational identity style and by mediating of normative identity style had an indirect effect on positive cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Ambivalent attachment had indirect effects on positive emotion regulation by mediation of informational and normative identity styles and on negative emotion regulation strategies by informational identity style. In addition avoidant attachment showed an indirect effect on positive and negative cognitive emotion regulation strategies by mediation of diffused identity style. Accordingly, identity processing styles played mediating roles in relationship between attachment styles and cognitive emotion regulation. Manuscript Document
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